Can I see albums and photos of other users?

Some profiles of other users show a number on their profile picture.

This is the number of photos this user made visible to other people, in albums created by this user.
You can press on the profile picture to see the albums of that user.

However, if the user is not following you, there is a chance that you might not see all the albums of that user, if they are restricted to Friends-only, or if the albums have a Rating Level higher than what you defined on your Account Settings.